By Katy Gardner, David Lewis
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Additional resources for Anthropology and Development: Challenges for the Twenty-First Century
Meanwhile, various bilateral agencies were also established by the wealthier nations. These are the governmental organisations, such as the United States Agency for International Development (USAID; set up in 1961) or the British Department for International Development (DFID; previously the Overseas Development Agency [ODA], established as the Overseas Development Ministry in 1964), both of which are involved in project and programme aid with partner countries. 1 shows the different main organisational actor types in the aid system.
Thus while economic gain was the driving force for imperial conquest, colonial rule in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries also involved attempts to Gardner T02723 01 text 11 16/12/2014 11:14 12 Anthropology and Development change local society with the introduction of European-style education, Christianity, and new political and bureaucratic systems. Notions of moral duty were central to this, often expressed in terms of the relationship between a trustee and a minor (Mair, 1984: 2). While rarely phrased in such racist terms, development discourse in the 1990s often involves similar themes: ‘good government’, institution building and gender training are just three currently fashionable concerns which promote ‘desirable’ social and political change.
The rise of China as a global economic power, for example, has dealt a fatal blow to the old Western binary worldview, and the gap between China and the group of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries is rapidly closing. Today there is a veritable industry of economic commentators identifying trends, coining acronyms and predicting the changing global order. Most influential has perhaps been the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, China) idea, originated by Jim O’Neill at Goldman Sachs.
Anthropology and Development: Challenges for the Twenty-First Century by Katy Gardner, David Lewis