By Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant used to be some of the most influential philosophers within the complete of Europe, who replaced Western idea along with his examinations of cause and the character of fact. In those writings he investigates human growth, civilization, morality and why, to be really enlightened, we needs to all have the liberty and braveness to exploit our personal mind. all through heritage, a few books have replaced the area. they've got reworked the best way we see ourselves - and every different. they've got encouraged debate, dissent, warfare and revolution. they've got enlightened, outraged, provoked and comforted. they've got enriched lives - and destroyed them. Now Penguin brings you the works of the good thinkers, pioneers, radicals and visionaries whose principles shook civilization and helped make us who we're.
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Additional info for An Answer To the Question: What Is Enlightenment?
4. g. ). But a credit system, if used by the powers as an instrument of aggression against one another, shows the power of money in its most dangerous form. For while the debts thereby incurred are always secure against present demands (because not all the creditors will demand payment at the same time), these debts go on growing indefinitely. This ingenious system, invented by a commercial people in the present century, provides a military fund which may exceed the resources of all the other states put together.
If we compare with this ultimate end the inhospitable conduct of the civilized states of our continent, especially the commercial states, the injustice which they display in visiting foreign countries and peoples (which in their case is the same as conquering them) seems appallingly great. America, the negro countries, the Spice Islands, the Cape, etc. were looked upon at the time of their discovery as ownerless territories; for the native inhabitants were counted as nothing. In East India (Hindustan), foreign troops were brought in under the pretext of merely setting up trading posts.
For to maintain that the guardians of the people in spiritual matters should themselves be immature, is an absurdity which amounts to making absurdities permanent. But should not a society of clergymen, for example an ecclesiastical synod or a venerable presbytery (as the Dutch call it), be entitled to commit itself by oath to a certain unalterable set of doctrines, in order to secure for all time a constant guardianship over each of its members, and through them over the people? I reply that this is quite impossible.
An Answer To the Question: What Is Enlightenment? by Immanuel Kant